Chronology

Wednesday 17 August 2011, by FQ, Laurent (Vnouk) // Biographical elements

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Vsevolod Petrovitch Zaderatsky
  • 21st december 1891 : Vsevolod Petrovitch Zaderatsky birth in Rovno, Ukraine.
  • Around 1910, after graduating in Koursk secondary school, he goes to Moscow to university and the academy of music. He graduated for Law in 1916. At the academy of music, he studies piano, composition and conducting orchestra. Among his teachers, Heinrich Pachulsky, Mikhaïl Ippolitov-Ivanov, Sergueï Taneev, Sergueï Vassilenko. He met Scriabine. In 1915/1916, he teaches piano to Prince Alexis, tsar Nicholas II’s son
  • 1914 : married Natalia Passechnik
  • 10 septembre 1915 : birth of his son Rostislav
  • 1916 : Russia joins First World War. He is mobilized and joins the military school of engineers. He gets his grade in 1917 (his final exam is passed by Engineer- General… César Cui (yes…the composer).
  • 1917-1923 : this part of his life is not very well known with few documents. Vsevolod Zaderatsky says in the CV sent in 1949 to the L’vov Conservatoire of music that he was a member of Denikin’s voluntary army in 1919-20. In march 1920, his wife and son embark in Novorosssirsk (on the Black sea), while the remnant of Denikin’s voluntary are directed towards Crimea. Vsevolod Zaderatsky, for his part, stays in Russia. The civil war ends in November 1920 with the evacuation of the last white armies of General Wrangel towards Constantinople. After 1920, Vsevolod Zaderatsky is relegated in Riazan (200km south of Moscow), where he gives piano lessons and is conducting a local orchestra.
  • 1923 : he gets a piano degree from the Academy of music.
  • 1926 : he is arrested and put in prison for nearly two years. All his existing composition are destroyed. He tries to commit suicide. He is freed in the first half of 1928 but will never get his civil rights for the rest of his life.
  • 1928 : first known compositions ( N°1 et 2 sonatas)
  • 1929 : He is allowed to stay in Moscow et and live there until 1934. This period will be very rich in compositions. He joins in the cultural life of the capital city, is considered by fellow composers but his work will never be played. He is a member of the Association for Comtemporary Music, a rival of the Russian Association of Proletarians Musicians (RAPM). The party disown the ACM, which disappears in 1932. The political climate gets hot with the rise in power of Stalinism .
  • 1934 : Vsevolod Petrovitch is forced to leave Moscow. He sets in Iaroslavl (200 km north of Moscow). He works at the School of Music as director of studies and teacher. He contributes to the creation of an Opera company and a symphonic orchestra. He mets with Valentina Perlova and marries her that year.
  • 9 juin 1935 : birth of his second son Vsevolod Vsevolodovitch.
  • Mars 1937 : Second arrest. He is accused to support
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    Carte de libération du Goulag

"fascists" composers. He was often playing Strauss and Wagner during his récitals. He is condemned to 10 years in Gulag. It will be Kolyma. He will be freed after two years july1939. During this nightmare (read Varlam Shalamov), he finds the strength and willpower to write his 24 preludes and fugues with hardly anything, without instrument, an extraodinary performance in itself. It is the first composer to write this musical form in the 20th century

  • 1940 : after several months he comes back in Iaroslavl and is reunited with family. He continues writing.
  • 1941 : During the nazi attack, the Zaderatsky family is evacuated towards Kazakhstan in the town named Merke.
  • 1944 : They set up in Krasnodar, just liberated from nazis in the south of Russia. He teaches in the musical school and becames artistic director of Krasnodar philarmonic orchestra. With musicians they play numerous concerts for soldiers on the front.
  • 1945 : Vsevolod Zaderatsky wishes to be nearer Moscow and set up in Ukraine. Still forbidden to set up in any large town, he cannot set up in Kiev. He chooses Jytomir, where he teaches at the school of music.
  • Septembre 1946 : The family moves again and comes back to Iaroslavl. He is the only member of the Union of Composers to stay in the town.
  • 1948 : He takes part to the Union of Composers congress. On his return, he has again to face the hostility of the authorities which are banning his music. Asked by Jytomir Academy of music to join them, he goes back there.
  • 1949-1953 : The family sets up in L’vov, west of’ Ukraine. Vsevolod Petrovitch teaches piano, piano and music chamber history at the Conservatoire of music. He finds there a nice working environment, both on human and intellectual levels. He tries to reconcile his artistics demands with the Party requirements concerning music matters. He composes 2 piano concertos, "for kids" trying to be simple, within the reach of the People, with in the second concerto, themes drawn from Russian and Belarus traditionnal music. In a concert given for the meeting of the ukrainian branch of the Union of Composers these works are played. It is a success. Nevertheless, two months later , a commitee of the Union coming from Moscow makes a scathing attack of the composer’s work. Vsevolod Zaderatsky music will again be condemned during an official meeting at the L’vov Conservatoire of music. He will be nevertheless discreetly supported by the local musical authorities who will arrange to soften his living conditions.
  • 1952-1953 : Vsevolod Petrovitch dedicates the two last years of his life to teaching and composition. His n°1 symphonie is completed in 1952. He starts the writing of a violin concerto. In january 1953 he is keen to complete his work.
  • 31 janvier 1953 : While frantically working at his violin concerto, Vsevolod Petrovitch Zaderatsky dies during the night from a heart attack. During his funerals, L’vov symphonic orchestra plays his symphonic works for the first time. He was buried on the 3rd february 1953 in L’vov Lychakivsky cemetery, a quiet, splendid place full of trees, with a large crowd attending the ceremony. On his grave there are two latin mottos, who guided his life: Nulla dies sine linea, Per aspera ad astra. No day without writing a line, Towards the stars through steep paths. stèle funéraire de Zaderatsky

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